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Among college students, Johnson found it to be perpetrated about 44% of the time by women and 56% of the time by men.Johnson states that situational couple violence involves a relationship dynamic "in which conflict occasionally gets 'out of hand,' leading usually to 'minor' forms of violence, and rarely escalating into serious or life-threatening forms of violence." Of the four types, situational couple violence and mutual violent control are reciprocal, while intimate terrorism is non-reciprocal.Generally, sensitivity of this measure has found to be lower among men than among women.The WAST is an eight-item measure (there is a short form of the WAST that consists of the first two items only).
It has been found to have good internal reliability and acceptable concurrent validity.The World Health Organization (WHO) defines IPV as "...any behaviour within an intimate relationship that causes physical, psychological or sexual harm to those in the relationship, including acts of physical aggression, sexual coercion, psychological abuse and controlling behaviors." The most extreme form of such violence may be termed battering, intimate terrorism, coercive controlling violence, or simply coercive control, in which one person is violent and controlling; this is generally perpetrated by men against women, and is the most likely of the types to require medical services and the use of a women's shelter.Violent resistance on its own is non-reciprocal, but is reciprocal when in response to intimate terrorism.In the 1970s and 1980s, studies using large, nationally representative samples resulted in findings indicating that women were as violent as men in intimate relationships.