# Live dating in the dark

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- 1915 Slipher: "the average velocity of the spirals is about 25 times the average stellar velocity." - 1917 Willem de Sitter: "The lines in the spectra of very distant stars or nebulae must therefore be systematically displaced towards the red, giving rise to a spurious positive radial velocity" [earliest redshift cosmological hypothesis].

- 1918 Carl Wirtz [translation]: "..system of spiral nebulae is drifting apart by a velocity of 656 km with respect to the momentary location of the solar system as the center." - 1922 Alexander Friedmann: On the curvature of space.

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Evidence for the Big Bang: NASA, Lawrence Krauss, et al., say it's the theory's predictions.

[Unlike Einstein's (& Newton's) difficulty in explaining why the universe doesn't gravitationally implode, Friedmann made an interpretation of general relativity that indicated an expanding universe.

Consider also from Ostriker & Milton, for Lemaître in "Belgium in 1925...

Slipher's spectra established that the spiral nebulae are extragalactic and gave their velocities... "both of those models were [valid] solutions to Einstein's equations..." - 1926 Edwin Hubble: Extra-galactic Nebulae: "This contribution gives the results of a statistical investigation of 400 extragalactic nebulae for which Holetschek has determined total visual magnitudes." - 1927 Georges Lemaître: Two years before Hubble, Lemaître explicitly published what was later misnamed the "Hubble Law", in his paper, "A homogeneous universe of constant mass and increasing radius accounting for the radial velocity of a period of time in which the universe was static.

What Lemaître sought were solutions to [Einstein's] field equations that would avoid "Einstein's static universe... (Eddington in 1931 estimated the universe originally at between a billion and 1.2 billion light-years in radius before it began expanding and later that same year Lemaître wrote in Monthly Notices on how, "the expansion of may be started..." (Note, this explicitly is NOT a big bang origin of the universe but the start of an expansion of a universe already in existence.) - 1929 Edwin Hubble: A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae, which paper included the "Hubble Law" [called that because Hubble failed to attribute it as Lemaître's Law].